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第一时间更新最新章节创业板上市委:仁信新材等3公司首发获通过。

(四)以人为本,培育独特的共享的单位文化。

可见,一个成熟、标准的企业平台对于简化和规范科研项目管理信息系统的开发和部署,至关重要。

在全球GPS应用领域中,车辆应用所占的比重最大,目前约占总数的40%以上。

4.2合理设置、设计防火门针对防火门闭门器存在的问题,在实际工作中,为降低此类问题带来的影响,应不断优化防火门的设计工作。

②财务管理:包括自主融资额不得低于多少、财务纪律、预算编制与执行情况、前面所说的专项费用控制等等。

具体说来各省规划的重点和特色是:山西省选择具有相对优势的生物技术及新医药、新材料、电子信息等高新技术领域以共性关键技术创新为核心。

关键词:农村地区民族地区新农村建设战略思考对策研究新农村建设是党和政府在新形势下为治理“三农问题”而提出的着眼长远、统揽全局的战略举措,是我国农村现代化的重大历史任务和推进器。

因此,酒店不但要建立详细的客户档案,更要使用现代化科技手段来组织、分析,形成电子化共享平台,以便充分发挥其功能,支持酒店日常经营管理和各种计划决策。

目前,铁、铜、铝、镍和钾盐等大宗矿产品的对外依存度很大,已经威胁到经济安全运行。

下一阶段建议着重进行形象产品的品牌建设,使农产品技术研究、生产加工、包装销售环环相扣,形成完整的产业链,增加产品附加值,提高单位收益。

二、民营高技术企业融资方式的战略选择民营高技术企业在融资方式的战略选择上应该发挥内部优势,回避外部威胁。

因为企业员工的灵感随时随地产生,要给他们提供相应的硬件和软件设备,使他们随时随地与他人交流而不局限于办公室,因而企业的系统知识平台应全天候地开放。

其次,设立研发机构,加大企业技术投入。

毕竟经济社会运行轨迹绝不会是一成不变的,从大的历史视角看,任何社会、任何国家都是走在不曾走过的路上。

物流零售企业的销售量受随机因素和其他人为因素(如促销)影响较大,造成门店的配送量波动大。

Howdoesaninvestigationofsocial-culturalinfl论文类别:工商管理论文下载-管理理论论文下载上传时间:2008/9/178:40:00论文作者:未知论文版本:简体版繁体版英文版1.Internationalmarketingingeneralisinfluencedbysocio-cultural,background,religiousbeliefsandcustomswhichcannotbeoverviewed.Theculturaldimensionprovidesthechanceandchallengetomarketers.Sotheinvestigationissignificantwhichwillmakethedecisionaccordinglyandmorecorrectly.Withthefollowingwewillintroducethenecessityindetail.Customisthemostimportantfactorinfluencethemarketing.Infact,successfulmarketingpeoplesawthecloseconnectionbetweencustomandcustomers:thewaytoturnpeopleintocustomersistomakeyourproductpartoftheircustomaryactions.Sometimeswholeindustriesarecreatedaroundacustom(Halloweencostumes)andatothertimes,customsarecreatedaroundaproduct(Valentine’sDaycards).Inbothcases,marketerstookadvantagesofthebasichumanneedforritual.Culturesdistinguishthemselvesbytheirrituals,evenwhentheyshareacommonlanguage.Collectingknowledgeaboutlocalcustomisbestdoneupcloseandfirsthand.Getting“ontheground”informationiswellworththecostthatitmayentail.Ifyourfirsttriptoanewcountryisforthepurposeofsellingaproductratherthaninvestingthepotentialtosellone,youmaybedisappointed.Marketershavetolearnhow,why,andwhenthetargetmarketgoesaboutitsbusinessinordertomakeyourproductfit.Anothershouldbetakenintoconsiderislanguage:Mostoftheworld’snationalboundariesaresetalonglinguisticperimeters.Especiallynames,whichareimportantineverylanguageandformarketers,brandnamesareparamount.Arrivinginanewmarketwithagreatnewproductthat’ssaddledwithabadbrandnamecouldspelldisaster.Evenestablishedinternationalcompanieshaveproblemswiththeirnames:SiemensisrarelyspelledcorrectlyanywherebutGermany,andfewpeopleineastAsiacanpronounceNestleproperty,norcanWesternerspronounceHyundai.Investigationofthelanguagewassurelykeyinnamingtheproduct.Also,thehistorycannotbeneglected.Everycountryandculture,whetherit’sasancientasIndiaorasyoungastheCzechRepublic,hasahistorythatwillgreatlyaffectboththemarketandthemarketer.Understandingthathistorywillenableamarketertoapproachthecultureinamoresubtlemanner,anditwillcertainlycauseanadjustmentofschedule.Ontheotherend,aculturethathasbeenmarkedbyindependenceforsometimewillhavefewfearsofforeignoperationsandmayfindthesubtleapproachfartoolacklusterandslow.Marketersmaybringtheirownbusinesstotheprocessandshouldtakecaretoseparatethemselves,atleastemotionally,fromtheirpersonalandculturalhistory.Oftentimes,thisincludesracialprejudicesthataredifficulttoshake,earlierpoliticaldisagreementsthathaveneverbeenfullysettled,ofoldunhealedwarwounds.Moreover,whenenteringtheforeigntherewillbemanyotheraspectsshouldbelearned,suchasreligion,thefamily,theeducationect.Theinvestigationoftheculturedimensionwillprovideinsightsforthemanagers,andthentheywilldealwiththebusinesseasilyandappropriately.Insomecases,itrunsalonggenderlines.Generallyspeaking,theinvestigationofsocia-culturalinfluenceswillbenefitthethemarketing:engageyourknow-howtoincreasesecurity;getimportantdetailstoreachyourmostimportantprospectivecustomers;reduceyourcostsforgoodscreditsandhence:increaseyourprofit.Themanagersneedtoputgreatemphasisontheinvestigation.2.Entrymodel(think2differententrymodel)inadditiontoevaluating2alternativemarketentrymodes.Alsodiscussthefactorsthatinfluenceaffirmschoicebetweenthealternative.Thereareavarietyofkindstoenteranothermarket,thesimplestformofentrystrategyisexporting,andmorecomplexformsincludetrulyglobaloperationswhichmayinvolvejointventures.ThefollowingwillintroducejointventureandFDI,alsocomparethedifferencebetweenthem.JointventuresJointventurescanbedefinedas"anenterpriseinwhichtwoormoreinvestorsshareownershipandcontroloverpropertyrightsandoperation".Jointventuresareamoreextensiveformofparticipationthaneitherexportingorlicensing.Therearefivecommonobjectivesinajointventure:marketentry,risk/rewardsharing,technologysharingandjointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefitsincludepoliticalconnectionsanddistributionchannelaccessthatmaydependonrelationships.Thekeyissuestoconsiderinajointventureareownership,control,lengthofagreement,pricing,technologytransfer,localfirmcapabilitiesandresources,andgovernmentintentions.FDI:Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI)isdefinedas“investmentmadetoacquirelastinginterestinenterprisesoperatingoutsideoftheeconomyoftheinvestor.”TheFDIrelationshipconsistsofaparententerpriseandaforeignaffiliatewhichtogetherformatransnationalcorporation.InordertoqualifyasFDItheinvestmentmustaffordtheparententerprisecontroloveritsforeignaffiliate.ForaninvestmenttoqualifyasFDI,physicalcapitalmustbecreatedintheforeigncountry(suchasmanufacturingfacilities,orfactories.)Thisphysicalcapitaliscontrolledbyafirmbasedoutsideofthereceiving,orhostcountry.Foreigndirectinvestmentisconsideredtobeaverystableinvestmentbecauseitinvolvesthecreationofphysicalcapital.FDIisconsideredtobealongterminvestmentbecausephysicalcapitalisnoteasilyliquidated.Comparethetwomodes:ModeJointventuresDirectinvestmentConditionsfavoringthismodeLargeculturalDistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialSomepoliticalriskGovernmentrestrictionsonforeignownershipLocalcompanycanprovideskills,resources,distributionnetwork,brandname,etc,Partners’size,marketpower,andresourcesaresmallcomparedtotheindustryleaders;SmallculturaldistanceAssetscannotbefairlypricedHighsalespotentialLowpoliticalriskAdvantagesOvercomeownershiprestrictionsandculturaldistanceCombinesresourcesof2companiesPotentialforlearningLessinvestmentrequiredSharingofriskandabilityJointfinancialstrengthMaybeonlymeansofentryandThesourceofsupplyforathirdcountry.GreaterknowledgeoflocalmarketCanbetterapplyspecializedskilledCanbeviewedasaninsiderDisadvantagesDifficulttomanageDilutionofcontrolGreaterriskthanexportinga&licensingMaybeimpossibletorecovercapitalDisagreementonthirdpartymarketstoserveHigherriskRequiresmoreresourcesandcommitmentMaybedifficulttomanagethelocalresourcesCase:QuebecorWorldwillprint20billiondirectorypagesayearinMexico,equaltomorethan75percentoftheMexicandirectorymarket.Whichmakeuseofthefollowingtwopoints:FDIbyacquisition;FDIwillincreasecapacity,andcompetitivenessoftarget.Differentmodesofentrymaybemoreappropriateunderdifferentcircumstances,andthemodeofentryisanimportantfactorinthesuccessoftheproject.Ifthepartnerscarefullymapoutinadvancewhattheyexpecttoachieveandhow,thenmanyproblemscanbeovercome.3.Acquisition(largeconsumermanufacture):Introduction:Undertheconditionofmodernenterprisesystemandmarketeconomy,“acquisition”oftenreferstoalegalactforanenterprisetoacquirethecontrolpowerandmanagingpowerofanotherenterprisethroughacertainchannel.Whichisalsoknownasatakeover,isthebuyingofonecompany(the‘target’)byanother.Anacquisitionmaybefriendlyorhostile.Intheformercase,thecompaniescooperateinnegotiations;inthelattercase,thetakeovertargetisunwillingtobeboughtorthetarget'sboardhasnopriorknowledgeoftheoffer.免费论文下载中Typesofacquisition:Thebuyerbuystheshares,andthereforecontrolsthetargetcompanybeingpurchased.Ownershipcontrolofthecompanyinturnconveyseffectivecontrolovertheassetsofthecompany,butsincethecompanyisacquiredasagoingbusiness;suchtransactioncarriesalloftheliabilitiesaccruedbythatbusinessoveritspastandalloftherisksthatcompanyfacesinitscommercialenvironment.Thebuyerbuystheassetsofthetargetcompany.Thecashthetargetreceivesfromthesell-offispaidbacktoitsshareholders.Suchtransactionleavesthetargetcompanyasanemptyshell.Abuyeroftenstructuresthetransactionasanassetpurchaseto"cherry-pick"theassets.Adisadvantageofthisstructureisthetaxthatmanyjurisdictions.Recently,alongwiththedevelopmentoftheeconomic,thescaleoftheacquisitionbecomesoverwhelmingandthephenomenonmorenormal.ThemainwaysofacquisitionofChineselistedcompaniesbyforeigncapitalarethefollowing:acquisitionbyagreement,acquisitionbyoffer,increasingtoissueBsharetocertainpeople,indirectacquisition,enteringintoChineselistedcompaniesbywayofjoiningtheprocessofchangingstateassetscreditors’rightsintostockinterests,formingChinese-foreignjointventuresandsoon.Basedthebackgroundofeconomicglobalization,acquisitionofChineseenterprisesbyforeigncapitalhasbecomethemaininternationaldirectinvestmentwaybyforeigncountries.Chineselistedcompaniesaretheirmainobjects.ExampleAgilent'sacquisitionofIBM'sarrayandchargetestassetscombinesIBM'stechnologyandproductknowledge,itslargeinstalledbase,anditsmarketrecognition.TheacquisitionisbeingintegratedintoAgilent'sHachiojiSemiconductortestDivision.AgilenthasassumedfullresponsibilityforIBM'swideinstalledbaseofFPDmanufacturersinJapan,TaiwanandKorea,aswellasongoingcommitmentsinapplicationsupport,productsupportandfuturerequirements.FPDmanufacturershavelongunderstoodthevalueofarraytesting,suchaspost-processcostsavings,expeditedyieldramp-upandstabilizationoftheproductionprocess.Movingforward,bybuildinguponthefoundationofbothAgilent'sandIBM'stechnologyandexpertise,AgilentexpectstosetanewindustrystandardforFPDarraytestingintermsofabsolutemeasurementsensitivityandspeed.Theyalsoexpecttodelivertocustomersimprovedmanufacturingprocessesatlowercost-of-test,ultimatelyenablingmoreaffordableFPDproducts.Acquisitionisaneffectiveapproachforenterprisestoenterintoforeignmarkets.Soacquisitioncannotonlyenlargetheclientbaseofcompany,butalsomakeitmorecompetitiveforforeignproductcost.Anditcanalsoprovidemoredistributionchannelsofexportmarket.Qlast:AmericantheoryofHRM----internationalboundaries&‘cultures----Hofstedculturedimensions.人力资源引入:(A)Humanresourcemanagementisthetheory,techniques,methods,andtoolsforstudyingtheadjustmentofpeopleandtheirrelationsintheorganization,connectionbetweenworkanditsrelations,matchingthepeopleandworkinordertofullydevelophumanresourcemanagement,tappeople’spotentials,motivatingpeople,promotingtheworkefficienciesandmeetingtheorganizationalobjectives.AndanotherquotefromTomKeenoyisthatHRM’smainpurposeisto“providealegitimatemanagementideologytofacilitatetheintensificationofwork”.Toachievethisobjective,themeaning,historicaldevelopmentandtheoreticalunderpinningsofHRMareoutlined.Globalizationhaspotentialimplicationsforvirtuallyalloftheresearchneedsanddirectionswealreadyhaveidentified.Today'sincreasinglyglobal,competitivemarketplacehasdrivenconsiderablechangesinlabormarkets,andhastransformedthepracticeofHumanResourceManagement.Expandedmultinationaloperationswithinlargecompanies,combinedwithincreasedtechnologyandcommunicationcapability,haveledtovastdiffusionofglobal“bestpractices”inHRM.引出文化差异现象,提出并分析问题(B)HowevertheCoreofCross-CulturalManagementCulturaldifferencesaffecttheefficiencyoforganizationsthroughpeople’sminds,valuesandbehavior.Itisalsohumans(forexample,themanagers)whoimplementcross-culturalmanagement.Aglobalorganizationneedstounderstandcross-culturaldifferencesbothinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Managingglobalboardsandseniorexecutivecommitteesrequiresasophisticatedunderstandingofculturaldifferencesininteractionpatternsandinattitudestowardstime,influence,andproblemsolvingstyles.Generallyspeaking,therearethreeculturaldimensionsdefined:Powerdistance,Uncertaintyavoidance,Inpidualism.AsfarasIknow,themostsignificantinfluenceinculturaldifferenceisthepowerdistance.Itisthedistancebetweenamanagerandsubordinate.Amongmostorientalcorporatecultures,thatisahighpowerdistanceculturethatmanagersmakethedecisionandsuperiorsappealtotheentitledmoreprivileges.Insuchsituation,itisnotberegardsifasubordinateshaveadisagreementwiththeirmanagers.Butinthewest,whentheemployeegotdifferentideas,hewillgotodiscusstheproblemwithhisboss.Conflictandmisunderstandingmustoccuriftwoormoreinterculturesmeetup.Underthissituation,theinternationalmanagersmustpayattentiontotheclashesandbeawareof.Howtoworkthesubordinatestogetherefficientlyandmorecooperativelyisimportanttoo.TheseconddimensionHofstedeindicatedistheuncertaintyavoidancewhichisthelackoftoleranceforriskandtheneedforformalrules.Theyfeelsafeandpridefulwhentheykeepworkinghardattheoneplacesoanexcellentmanagershouldkeephisemployeeawayfromunpredictablerisk.Onantherhandtheemployeewouldliketobeworkedwithingroupsratherthanindependentlycauseofthelessrisk-taking.Butinmostwesterncountries,highjobmobilityoccursinthosecountriessuchasUSA,Denmark,Singapore.Theythinkthejobwhentheychangetheirjobs,moreandbetterjobscanbehunted.Andtheycangetmoreexperiencecausetheylikechallenge.Acompetentmanagershouldpayattentionontherulessettingbetweendifferentuncertaintyavoidance.Themisreadingofthatmayaffecttheinitiativeandtheaspirationofthesubordinates.Thenthereisalsoalargediscrepancyontheinpidualism.Itisaconcernforyourselfasaninpidualasopposedtoconcernforthegroup.Thepriorityofself-concernorgroup-concernvariesfromdifferentcultures.Forexample,mostwesternemployeesliketoworkwiththeirownplanfordefendingtheirinterest.Thatisahighinpidualism.Theyjustsimplyworkintheirownways,followtheirownrules,andachievetheirownobjective.Itisgoodforacompanytogatherasmuchideasastheycanwhenstartinganewprogram.Buthowtomanagetheseinpidualstoreachthegroupgoalshouldbetheawarenessformanagers.Ithinkwhoisgoodatthisshouldbegoodatgrouping,troubleshooting,andcoordinatingskills.Cross-culturalmanagementisafascinatinglycomplexsubject.Crossculturalknowledgeandawarenesscanassistexecutivestoimprovemanagementskills.Moreimportantly,itcanalsohelpbusinessleadersmaketherightstrategicdecisions.TheabovethreedimensionsilluminatedthemostimportantculturaldifferencesthataffectonHRM.Internationalmanagersoughttobeabletoawarenotonlytheculturaldifferencebutalsotheinterculturalcommunication.转贴于免费论文下载中声明:本论文来自免费论文下载中心:200809/81894.asp免费论文下载中心所发布的论文版权归原作者所有,本站仅供大家学习、研究、参考之用,未取得作者授权严禁摘编、篡改、用作商业用途.

要让学习者们能够在培训的过程中自觉主动的将理论与实践进行有机的结合。

在新形势下,内部审计机构应当加强其独立性和权威性,在企业最高管理层的直接领导下,独立于有关部门的经济活动之外,对经济活动进行审核检查,并提出改进意见和建议,对内部控制制度的功能和效果进行评价测试提出改进意见和建议。

把发展高科技产业当成发展高科技,而忽视高科技产业化和对传统产业的改造提升。

表12所示上海医药科学领域R&D项目按项目合作单位分组情况,85%的项目为独立完成,表明知识流动不足是上海医药科学领域科技发展与学科建设相对薄弱的重要原因,如何采取有效措施加强产学研合作、战胜系统失灵是加强上海医药科学领域科技发展与学科建设面临的重要任务。

但与传统媒体面临尴尬的局面不同的是,网络互动传媒却逐渐盛行。

而从表2可以看出,武汉城市圈很多数据指标占湖北省的60%以上,甚至有些数据超过80,表明湖北省区域创新能力在一定程度上也能够体现出武汉城市圈创新能力的特点;武汉城市圈GDP占湖北省GDP的比重远低于高等院校、专利申请当年累计以及专利授权当年累计的比重,表明武汉城市圈具有的知识创新能力与经济发展情况形成鲜明的反差。

政府诚信是建立完善社会诚信体系的必要前提。

在起步阶段政府部门积极主动地介入弓l导农民确立社会化服务的理念并且在宣传发动、制度建设、资金筹集、规范运作等方面给予帮助和扶持引导和带动各类社会主体积极参与沼气服务体系建设。

(未完待续。。)

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